REFERENCES

CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE

  1. PD risk factor for CVD

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2504402

  1. CHD pt risk of death increase with every tooth lost

http://cpr.sagepub.com/content/early/2015/12/14/2047487315621978

  1. 80-90% Heart Disease can be prevented with lifestyle changes

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(04)17018-9/abstract

  1. PD treatment reduces hospital admissions and lowers medical costs (Stroke $5168/pt/yr;  Heart Disease $1090/pt/yr)

https://www.unitedconcordia.com/dental-insurance/dental/conditions/ucwellness-oral-health-study/results-ucwellness-oral-health-study/

  1. PD directly linked to arterial inflammation

http://content.onlinejacc.org/article.aspx?articleid=1144173

  1. Subgingival periodontal directly linked to increase in BP (both diastolic and systolic) and also hypertension prevalence

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3403746/

  1. Dental Infection and Oral Bacteria may be associated with development of acute coronary thrombosis (heart attack)

http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/127/11/1219

  1. Heart Disease is #1 cause of death in US – claiming more lives than all cancers combined

http://www.cdc.gov/heartdisease/facts.htm

  1. Oral Bacteria can invade arterial wall (basement membrane)

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3084572/

DIABETES

  1. 29.1 million with diabetes in the US (the number is increasing rapidly – 26M in 2010)

1 in 4 don’t know they have it

More than 1 in 3 has pre-diabetes

http://www.cdc.gov/features/diabetesfactsheet/

  1. 95% of people with diabetes also have periodontal disease

Diabetics with periodontal disease have more difficulty controlling their blood sugar level

1 in 3 healthcare dollars is spent caring for people with diabetes

$332 Billion Per Year

Treating gum disease lowers annual cost associated with diabetes.  ($2840/pt/yr;  reduces 39.4%/yr Diabetes Hospital Admissions)

https://www.adha.org/resources-docs/7228_Oral_Health_Total.pdf

  1. This paper greatly underpredicted the growth in diagnoses and spending

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2782981/

  1. PD Tx can improve glycemic control in pts with diabetes

https://www.unitedconcordia.com/dental-insurance/dental-health/conditions/ucwellness-oral-health-study/results-ucwellness-oral-health-study/

ALZHEIMER’S

  1. Gum disease bacteria can be found in the brains of Alzheimer’s patients.  Chronic Systemic Inflammation caused by PD increases the risk for AD. AD patients with gum disease have significantly more rapid cognitive decline than AD pts with healthy mouth.

http://www.journaloforalmicrobiology.net/index.php/jom/article/view/29143

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4488989/

  1. Inflammation and progression of AD

29, 30. Inflammation and development of AD

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3887148/

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3253025/

INFLAMMATION

  1. PD Tx results in reduction of systemic inflammation

http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.328.8280&rep=rep1&type=pdf

  1. Oral Inflammation caused by pathogens induces a systemic increase in inflammatory markers

http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0055265

PERIODONTAL DISEASE

  1. Nearly half of American adults have periodontitis (the most severe form of periodontal disease)

https://www.perio.org/consumer/cdc-study.htm

  1. 80% adults over 35 have some form of periodontal disease

http://www.colgate.com/en/us/oc/oral-health/conditions/gum-disease/article/periodontal-disease

PREGNANCY

14, 19, 20.Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

http://jdh.adha.org/content/81/suppl_1/116.full.pdf

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3144105/

http://www.futuremedicine.com/doi/pdf/10.2217/whe.11.37

  1. 35 y/o healthy pregnant woman 39 weeks 5 days pregnant – stillbirth – Yiping Han says cause was F. nucleatum infection

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3004155/

  1. Mechanism of F. nucleatum in intrauterine infection

https://cwru.pure.elsevier.com/en/projects/mechanism-of-f-nucleatum-in-intrauterine-infection-2

COLORECTAL CANCER

  1. Oral Bacteria in Colon Cancer

https://cwru.pure.elsevier.com/en/projects/fusobacterium-nucleatum-mediated-stimulation-of-colorectal-cancer

PANCREATIC CANCER

  1. Recent studies show that the presence of 2 oral pathogenic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans ) increases a person’s risk for pancreatic cancer by more than 50 percent (P.g. 59%;  A.a. 119%).

http://www.aacr.org/Newsroom/Pages/News-Release-Detail.aspx?ItemID=876#.V8MJIGVflNF

  1. having a healthy oral biofilm (your mouth has only the good bacteria) is protective against developing pancreatic cancer.

http://www.colgate.com/en/us/oc/oral-health/conditions/cancer/article/ada-10-oral-bacteria-may-signal-risk-for-pancreatic-cancer

LUNG, KIDNEY, PANCREATIC, AND WHITE BLOOD CELL CANCER

  1. Gum disease significantly increases the risk risk factor for all of these cancers

http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lanonc/article/PIIS1470-2045(08)70106-2/fulltext

 

ORAL CANCER

  1. It is estimated that 60% of all cancers of the mouth are caused by HPV.

http://www.cdc.gov/std/hpv/stdfact-hpvandoropharyngealcancer.htm

  1. The leading cause of oropharyngeal cancer is HPV

http://oralcancerfoundation.org/hpv/

  1. Over 200 strains of HPV, 9 cause cancer (another 6 might also cause cancer).  HPV16 (same as cause for cervical, anal, and penile cancers) is the main cause for oropharyngeal cancer

http://oralcancerfoundation.org/hpv/hpv-oral-cancer-facts.php

  1. Chronic periodontitis significantly increases risk for tongue cancer

http://archotol.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=484728

DEPRESSION

  1. After controlling for known contributing factors (like body mass index and inflammatory marker hsCRP), researchers found that the incidence of depression was greater for those who suffered from more unhealthy dental conditions.  Furthermore, researchers found that the more dental conditions subjects had, the greater severity of their depression.

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4520114/

ARTIFICIAL JOINTS AND VALVES

25, 26. Oral pathogens can enter the bloodstream and infect artificial joints

https://www.drugwatch.com/knee-replacement/complications/

http://nutritionreview.org/2014/12/mouth-bacteria-linked-to-joint-infection-failure-of-artificial-joints/

  1. Oral pathogens infect artificial valves

http://my.clevelandclinic.org/services/heart/disorders/heart-valve-disease/endocarditis-protection

ORAL BIOFILM

  1. Oral bacteria can be transmitted by kissing

http://microbiomejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/2049-2618-2-41

  1. 11 pathogens linked to oral and systemic disease

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/01/130103114130.htm

ACID REFLUX (and esophageal cancer)

  1. http://www.healthline.com/health/gerd/esophageal-cancer